Home page||Ship employment
What is ISM ? Purpose and implementation of ISM code on board cargo ships
What is ISM
ISM is the short form of International Safety Management , initiated by IMO. ISM code means International Safety management code for safe operation ships & for pollution prevention. Solas chapter 9 outlined ISM procedures.Majority of accidents and injury are caused by human error & poor management. ISM is organized mainly to reduce this error. ISM is meant for standard of safety & operation of ships and for pollution prevention. Become mandatory for all vessels after 1 JULY 2002
ISM Consists of 13 clauses:-
i) General objective, application, functional requirement
ii) Safety & environmental policy & SMS
iii) Company responsibility
iv) Designated person
v) Masters responsibility
vi) Resources & personnel
vii) Developments of plans for shipboard operation
viii) Emergency preparedness
ix) Report & analysis on non conformities, accidents & hazardous occurrence
x) Maintenance of ship equipment
xii) Company verification, review & evaluation
xiii) Certification, verification & control
What are the benefits gained from ISM ?
Favourable insurance premium
Purpose Of ISM code & international requirements
To provide an international standard for the safe management and operation of ships and for prevention of pollution. Main objectives are to ensure safety at sea, prevention of human injury or loss of life, and avoidance of damage to the environment.
The new chapter IX to SOLAS 1974, Management for the Safe Operation of Ships requires compliance of Passenger Vessels and high speed Passenger Craft over 500 GRT by 1 July 1998. Oil Tankers, Cargo high speed craft, Chemical Tankers, Gas Carriers and Bulk Carriers to comply by 1 July 1998. Other Cargo ships and mobile Offshore drilling rigs of over 500 GRT to comply by 1 July 2002.The MSA will be responsible for the system audit, issue and renewal of ISM Convention Certificates and the periodic verification.
Certification:The application of the code will lead to the issue of two certificates :
The Document Of Compliance (DOC)
i) will be issued to the company following a successful audit of the shore side aspects of the Safety Management System
ii) evidence required that the system as been in operation on at least one type of ship in the companies fleet for a period of three months.
iii) Specific to ship types at time of audit
iv) valid for 5 years
v) subject to annual verification ( within 3 months of anniversary date)
The Safety Management Certificate (SMC)
i) issued to each ship following audit
ii) evidence that SMS has been in operation for 3 months prior to audit
iii) valid DOC required
iv) valid for 5 years
Subject to one verification between the second an third anniversaries with a provison for more frequent audits if necessary. This is more likely in the early days of ISM Code implementation.
Temporary certification- A 12month valid DOC may be issued to a newly formed company or a company acquiring a new type of vessel as long as they have a SMS meeting the minimum requirements of the ISM code and can demonstrate plan for full compliance.
A six month valid SMC may be issued to a new building or when a company takes of the responsibilities for the running of a vessel.
Safety Management System
Safety Management objectives of the company:
1. provide for safe working practices and a safe working environment
2. establish safeguards against possible risks
3. continuously improve safety management skills of personnel ashore and aboard ships,
A Safety Management system (SMS) meeting the requirements of the ISM code requires a company to document its management procedures and record its actions to ensure that conditions, activities and tasks that affect safety and the environment are properly planned, organised, executed and checked. A SMS is developed and implemented by people and clearly defines responsibilities, authorities and lines of communication. A SMS allows a company to measure its performance against set criteria hence identifying areas that can be improved. The increase in Safety Management skills improves morale and can lead to a reduction in costs due to an increase in efficiency and a reduction in claims
The safety management system should ensure;
i) compliance with mandatory rules and regulations
ii) applicable codes and guidelines both statutory and organisational are taken into account.
iii) Promulgation and understanding of company and statutory regulations and guidelines. (It is the task of a visiting surveyor to test the general knowledge of company and statutory regulations and instructions)
The functional requirements for a safety management system;
1. a safety and environmental policy
2. instructions and procedures to ensure that safe operation of the vessel in compliance with relevant international and flag state legislation
3. defined levels of authority and communication between shore and ship personnel
4. procedures for reporting accidents and non-conformities with the code
5. procedures for responding to emergency situations (drills etc)
6. procedures for internal audits and management reviews
7. A system is in place for the on board generation of plans and instructions for key shipboard operations. These tasks may be divided into two categories :
a) Special operations-those where errors only become apparent after a hazardous situation or accident has occurred. E.g. ensuring water tight integrity, navigational safety(chart corrections, passage planning), maintenance operations, bunker operations
b) Critical shipboard operations- where an error will immediately cause an accident or a situation that could threaten personnel, environment or vessel. e.g. navigation in confined waters, operation in heavy weather, bunker or oil transfers, cargo operations on tankers.
Safety and environmental protection policy
The company should establish a safety and environmental protection policy which describes how objectives listed above will be achieved.
The company should ensure that the policy is implemented and maintained at all levels of the organisation both ship based as well as shore based.
The ISM guideline is in the Chapter IX of SOLAS. It is mandatory for all vessels after 1st July 2002. There are two parts in ISM
i) Part-A: Implementation.
ii) Part-B: Certification and Verification
1. General ,objective,application, functional requirments
2. Safety & environment protection policy.
3. Company responsibility & authority.
5. Master responsibility and Authority.
6. Resource & personnel.
7. Development of plan for ship board operation.
8. Emergency preparedness.
9. Report & analysis on non conformities, accidents & hazardous occurrance
10. Maintenance of ship equipments
12. Company verification, review and Evolution.
13. Certification and periodical verification
14. Interim certification.
16. Form of certification.
Q: which clause involved to ships crew?
Ans: 1, 2, 5, 6, 7,6,9,10,11 (except 3, 4 of part A and full part B)
Objective of ISM
1. Safety at sea.
2. Prevention of human injury or loss of life.
3. Avoidance of damage to the environment & to the property.
Certificate under ISM:
1) Document of compliance (DOC).
2) Safety management certificate (SMC).
Issued to company which comply with the requirement of ISM.
Issued to the ship. Which company ship board management operate in accordance with the SMS.
Issuing authority of DOC & SMC:
Flag state administration or authorized classification societies on their behalf.
SMS - Safety management system enabling the company personal to effectively implement company safety & environment protection policy.
DPA means Designated Person Ashore. A person who is provides a link between the company & the ship. He has a direct assess to the highest level of management.
Duties of DPA
1. Monitoring the safety & pollution prevention aspect of ship & to ensure adequate resources & shore base support for ship.
2. A person or persons who has direct access to the highest levels of management providing a link between the company and those on board.
The responsibility and authority of the designated person is to provide for the safe operation of the vessels. He should monitor the safety and pollution prevention aspects of the operation of each vessel and ensure their are adequate shore side resources and support
Master responsibilities are to implement the SMS on board ship.
1) Implement of safety & environment protection policy.
2) Motivation of crew in observing the policy.
3) Issue order & instruction.
4) Review SMS & report.
Resources and Personnel
1. The company should ensure that the Master is suitably qualified and fully conversant with the SMS. They should also ensure that the ship is correctly manned.
2. The company should ensure that there is adequate familiarisation with safety and protection of the environment for new personnel. They should ensure that the personnel has an adequate understanding of the relevant rules, regulations, guidelines and codes.
3. Training is to be provided where necessary. Relevant information for the SMS should be promulgated and be written in an easy to understand method.
Development of plans for ship board operations
1. The company should establish procedures for the generation of shipboard plans and instructions with regard to the prevention of pollution and that these should be generated by qualified personnel
The company should establish procedures for the response actions to potential emergency situations. Programmes for drill should be established and measures taken to ensure that the company's organisation can respond to hazards and accidents.
Reports and analysis of non-conformities, accidents and hazardous occurrences
The company should ensure there is a procedure for the reporting and analysis of accidents, hazardous occurrences and non-conformities, and for the corrective action.
Maintenance of the ship and equipment
The company is to ensure that the vessel is properly maintained. Procedures within the SMS should be in place to identify, record and plan for repair defects. A system of preventive maintenance should be in operation.
Regular inspections integrated with the ships operational maintenance routine should take place to ensure that the vessel is in compliance with relevant regulations.
1. The company should establish and maintain procedures for the control of all documentation relevant to the SMS. This should include;
1. valid documents are available at all relevant locations
2. changes to documents are reviewed and approved to authorised personnel
3. obsolete documents are promptly removed
All documents, carried in a company approved relevant form, should be present on board
Company verification, review and evaluation
1. The company should carry out periodic audits to verify that safety and pollution prevention's are complying with SMS. The audits and corrective actions should be carried out as per laid down procedures.
2. Personnel carrying out the audits should be independent of the areas that they are carrying out the audit unless size of the company is such that this is impractical.
3. Deficiencies or defects found should be brought to the attention of the personnel in that section and the management team so effective corrective action can be carried out
Certification, verification and control
The following documentation is issued by whichever administration, complying with ISM, is relevant to the shipping company:
1. A DOC is issued to all company's who can demonstrate that they have complied with the code should be held. A copy of the DOC should be held on board to allow the Master to produce it to the relevant authorities is required.
2. An SMC is issue to the ship following verification that the ship and company comply with the requirements of SMS.
Future verification that compliance with SMS should be carried out by the administration.
Requirements on board ship
1. Proof that the vessel is being maintained in a satisfactory condition at all times, and not only at the time of surveys-objective evidence in the form of no overdue surveys, no overdue recommendations from port or flag state inspections and that planned maintenance is being carried out and records kept.
2. Applicable codes and guidelines are being taken into consideration when operating the vessel. Vessels staff must be able to demonstrate that operations are carried out in a controlled manner utilising information contained in these codes, guidelines and standards.
3. That emergency situations have been identified and drills are conducted to ensure the vessel and company are ready to respond to emergency situations.
The master is expected to be fully conversant with Company safety management system. Officers and crew would be expected to be familiar with the parts of the system relevant to their safety responsibilities as well as a thorough understanding of their operational responsibilities- auditors will ensure compliance.
Examples of the type of documentation the auditor will wish to see to verify compliance with the ISM are as follows;
Safety and management meeting minutes and follow up actions
Company circular letters
Planned maintenance records
Records of verification
Records of masters review of the system
Records of internal audits and follow up
Records of chart corrections
Class quarterly listings
Records of passage planning
Oil record books
Company manual and forms
Pollution prevention and OPA 90
Tied into the ISM code are the requirements to meet OPA90 to wit a Federal Response Plan. Each company that trades in US coastal waters must have in place a suitable response plan. They must have a designated person resident in the United states ready to act as consultant.
There is an IMO regulations which is equivalent to OPA90. A company must be in possession of a valid DOC to trade, and it must be able to clearly demonstrate its ability to respond to situations such as oil sp llage.
Non conformity (NC)
An observed situation where objective evidence indicate the non-fulfillment of a specified requirement.
Non-conformance report (NCR) raised by department managers. Any one can inform his superior of a non-conformance.
DCR means Document Change Request. It is a recommendation for change/correction of company SMS documents.
Other useful articles :
- Rope handling safe procedure
Ropes are made of short fibres that are spun into yarns,
which are then made into flat or twisted strands.
And the strands are spun or braided to make the finished
Synthetic man-made ropes and hawsers
Although natural fibre ropes are still widely used throughout the marine industry, they have been superseded by synthetic fibres for a great many
purposes. Not only do the majority of synthetic ropes have greater strength
than their natural fibre counterparts, but they are more easily obtainable
and at present considerably cheaper.
Natural fibre rope
All natural fibre rope is manufactured from manilla, sisal, hemp, coir, cotton
or flax fibres.The process of manufacture consists of twisting the fibres
into yarns and turning the yarns in an opposite direction to establish the
- Prepare cargo holds prior loading
Washing is always carried out after the compartment has been swept. Drying time for washed compartments must be allowed for, before loading the next cargo; this time will vary with the climate, but two to three days must be expected.
- Strength and stability of the Lifting appliances
The vessel's structure, crane, derrick or other lifting device and the supporting structure should be of sufficient strength to withstand the loads
that will be imposed when operating at its maximum load moment .
- Anchoring safe practice
Prior approaching an area for anchoring ships master should investigate fully a suitable anchoring position and conduct a planned approach including speed reduction in ample time and orienting the ships head prior anchoring to same as similar sized vessels around or stem the tide or wind whichever is stronger . Final decision to be made on method of anchoring to be used , the number of shackles , the depth of water, expected weather and holding ground. .
- MacGregor single-pull weather-deck hatch cover
Hatch covers are used to close off the hatch opening and make it
watertight. Wooden hatch covers, consisting of beams and boards over
the opening and covered with tarpaulins, were once used but are no
longer fitted. Steel hatch covers, comprising a number of linked steel
covers, are now fitted universally. Various designs exist for particular
applications, but most offer simple and quick opening and closing,
which speed up the cargo handling operation..
- Cargo holds access arrangement
The access shall be separate from the hatchway opening, and shall be by a stairway if possible. A fixed ladder, or a line of fixed rungs, shall have no point where they fill a reverse slope
Lay of Ropes and hawsers - Small Stuff descriptions
The lay of rope is a term used to describe the nature of the twist that produces the complete rope .The most common form of rope at sea is known as ‘hawser laid rope’ comprising three strands laid up right- or lefthanded.
- Stresses in ship structures and how to mitigate
Heavy weights tend to cause a downward deflection of the deck area supporting the load .This subsequently produces stresses, with
consequent inward and outward deflections of supporting bulkheads,
depending on the position of initial loading .
- Lifting appliances - Maintenance, testing, controls & safety measures
When there is any suspicion that any appliance or item of
equipment may have been subjected to excessive loads, exceeding the Safe
Working Load (SWL), or subjected to treatment likely to cause damage, it
should be taken out of service until it can be subjected to a thorough
examination by a competent person.
- Safe operation of Lifting appliances and gears
All lifting operations must be properly planned, appropriately
supervised and carried out to protect the safety of workers.
Machinery system main info pages
Home page||Cooling ||Machinery||Services ||Valves ||Pumps ||Auxiliary Power ||Propeller shaft ||Steering gears ||Ship stabilizers||Refrigeration||Air conditioning ||Deck machinery||Fire protection||Ship employment
General Cargo Ship.com provide information on cargo ships various machinery systems -handling procedures, on board safety measures and some basic knowledge of cargo ships that might be useful for people working on board and those who working in the terminal. For any remarks please
Copyright © 2010-2016 General Cargo Ship.com All rights reserved.
Terms and conditions of use