Hold preparations for general cargo ships
How to prepare cargo holds prior loading
1. The compartment should be swept clean, and all traces of the previous cargo removed. The amount of cleaning is dependent on the nature of the previous cargo: some cargoes, such as coal, will require the holds to be washed before the carriage of a general cargo. Washing is always carried out after the compartment has been swept. Drying time for washed compartments must be allowed for, before loading the next cargo; this time will vary with the climate, but two to three days must be expected.
2. Bilge areas should be cleaned and all ‘bilge suctions’ seen to be working satisfactorily.All ‘holes’ in rose boxes should be clear to allow the passage of water and the lines’ non-return valves seen to be in a working condition. Should the bilges be contaminated from odorous cargoes, it may become necessary to ‘sweeten’ them by a wash of chloride of lime.This acts as a disinfectant as well as providing a coating against corrosion.
3. The fire/smoke detection system should be tested and seen to function correctly.
4. The holds drainage system and ‘tween deck scuppers should be clear and free from blockage.
5. Spar ceiling (cargo battens) should be examined and seen to be in a good state of repair.
6. Steel hatch covers should be inspected for their watertight integrity about any joints. If hard rubber seals are fitted, these should be inspected for deterioration.
7. Ladders and access points should be inspected for damage and security.
8. Hold fitments such as built-in lighting and guard rails should be checked and seen to be in good order.
9. Soiled dunnage should be disposed of.New dunnage, clean and dry, should be laid in a manner to suit the next cargo, if needed.
10. Hold ventilation system should be operated to check fan conditions.
Additional for Special Cargoes
1. Grain : Limber boards should be plugged and covered with burlap. This prevents grain blocking bilge suctions, while at the same time allowing the passage of water.
2. Coal: Spar ceiling should be removed and covered (most bulk cargoes require this).
3. Salt: Metalwork should be whitewashed.
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Ropes are made of short fibres that are spun into yarns, which are then made into flat or twisted strands. And the strands are spun or braided to make the finished rope .
Although natural fibre ropes are still widely used throughout the marine industry, they have been superseded by synthetic fibres for a great many purposes. Not only do the majority of synthetic ropes have greater strength than their natural fibre counterparts, but they are more easily obtainable and at present considerably cheaper.
All natural fibre rope is manufactured from manilla, sisal, hemp, coir, cotton or flax fibres.The process of manufacture consists of twisting the fibres into yarns and turning the yarns in an opposite direction to establish the strands.
The lay of rope is a term used to describe the nature of the twist that produces the complete rope .The most common form of rope at sea is known as ‘hawser laid rope’ comprising three strands laid up right- or lefthanded.
Heavy weights tend to cause a downward deflection of the deck area supporting the load .This subsequently produces stresses, with consequent inward and outward deflections of supporting bulkheads, depending on the position of initial loading .
Prior approaching an area for anchoring ships master should investigate fully a suitable anchoring position and conduct a planned approach including speed reduction in ample time and orienting the ships head prior anchoring to same as similar sized vessels around or stem the tide or wind whichever is stronger . Final decision to be made on method of anchoring to be used , the number of shackles , the depth of water, expected weather and holding ground. .
Hatch covers are used to close off the hatch opening and make it watertight. Wooden hatch covers, consisting of beams and boards over the opening and covered with tarpaulins, were once used but are no longer fitted. Steel hatch covers, comprising a number of linked steel covers, are now fitted universally. Various designs exist for particular applications, but most offer simple and quick opening and closing, which speed up the cargo handling operation..
The access shall be separate from the hatchway opening, and shall be by a stairway if possible. A fixed ladder, or a line of fixed rungs, shall have no point where they fill a reverse slope .
Washing is always carried out after the compartment has been swept. Drying time for washed compartments must be allowed for, before loading the next cargo; this time will vary with the climate, but two to three days must be expected.
The vessel's structure, crane, derrick or other lifting device and the supporting structure should be of sufficient strength to withstand the loads that will be imposed when operating at its maximum load moment .
When there is any suspicion that any appliance or item of equipment may have been subjected to excessive loads, exceeding the Safe Working Load (SWL), or subjected to treatment likely to cause damage, it should be taken out of service until it can be subjected to a thorough examination by a competent person.
All lifting operations must be properly planned, appropriately supervised and carried out to protect the safety of workers.
Derricks for lifting cargo on board is required to be of adequate strength and stability for each load, having regard in particular to the stress induced at its mounting or fixing points , securely anchored, adequately ballasted or counterbalanced and supported by outriggers as necessary to ensure its stability when lifting.
Deck cranes have a number of advantages, the rigging time being negligible, and the crane is able to pick up and land permitted loads anywhere within its working radius. The safe working loads of cranes is generally of the order of 10 to 15 tonnes and larger cranes are available capable of lifts from 30 to 40 tonnes..
Paint consists of pigment dispersed in a liquid referred to as the ‘vehicle’. When spread out thinly the vehicle changes in time to an adherent dry film. The drying may take place through one of the following processes..
It is often assumed that all paint coatings prevent attack on the metal covered simply by excluding the corrosive agency, whether air or water. This is often the main and sometimes the only form of protection; however there are many paints which afford protection even though they present a porous surface or contain various discontinuities. .
classification societies publish rules and regulations which are principally concerned with the strength of the ship, the provision of adequate equipment, and the reliability of the machinery .
To maintain the assigned class all steel ships are required to be surveyed and examined by the Society’s surveyors at regular periods. The major hull items to be examined at these surveys only are discussed here..
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