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Modern cargo ships structural plans- how to use them

Ships plan

Loaded Containership

Structural plans, sometimes called scantlings plans, show dimensions of the ships framing and plating. The midships section drawing, generally available for all ships, and the shell expansion plan are particularly useful. The midships section drawing provides the data required for the midships section modulus calculation.

The shell expansion plan and larger scale shell plating drawings show details of the hull plating such as the size, thickness, and material of the plating. They also show details of openings, fittings, and appendages attached to the plating. Much of the data needed for designing patches and structural repairs, and for determining the feasibility of making hull cuts can be obtained from shell drawings.

Docking Plans and Reports

In addition to docking information, the ship docking plan shows the underwater profile of the ship, the plan view of its bottom, and locations of underwater appendages, sea suctions, and overboard discharges, with reference points and measurements to locate them. The docking plan also provides vertical measurements from the main deck and base line, the location and dimensions of the docking blocks for the three docking positions, and the critical dimensions of the ship.

Docking reports provide a complete and accurate description of the ship’s bottom. They describe the results of inspections and work done while the ship is in dry dock. Reports for emergent or unplanned dockings do not provide a complete bottom description, but address only the work done during the docking; reports of unplanned drydockings can be considered supplements to the report of the previous regular dry docking. Docking reports are further supplemented by subsequent underwater hull inspection, hull cleaning, and repair or work reports. In addition to an overall description of the ship’s bottom, docking reports include two items of interest to salvors: the shaft covering, if any, and the type of paint applied to the ship’s bottom and appendages. Information on paint systems and coverings alerts the diving supervisor to potential toxic hazards.

General cargo ships midship cross section

Fig:General cargo ships midship cross section

Capacity Plan

A plan of the spaces available for cargo, fuel, fresh water, water ballast, etc, and containing cubic or weight capacity lists for such spaces and a scale showing deadweight capacities at varying draughts and displacements.

It would be difficult and inconvenient to gather all those information and place them on one plan in a clear and legible manner. In addition, all these pieces of information can be found on various other drawings. To avoid repeating data and multiplying existing documents it is recommended to create a Capacity Plan as a set of documents listed below:

1. General Part
2. Coordinate System
3. Draught Marks
4. Load Line Mark and Deadweight Scale
5. Tank Space Information
6. Cargo Space Information

Other useful articles :
  1. Assigning loadlines marks

  2. Loadlines are marks punched into and painted on the sides of general cargo ships.The assigning of the vessels loadline and the issue of the Certificate is the responsibility of the Marine Authority of the country. .
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  3. Cargo ships Loaded Condition

  4. closely monitor the ship's condition during cargo operations to ensure that if a significant deviation from the agreed loading/unloading plan is detected all cargo and ballast operations must STOP..
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  5. Packing a container recommended method

  6. Packing a container should always be done on level plane either on the ground,on a railcar, or on a trailer. In the case of a trailer, care should be taken to ensure the trailer cannot tip whilst being packed especially if a forklift truck is being used. If necessary the trailer should be propped. Brakes should be securely applied and wheels choked.
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  7. Packing principles relating to cargo in containers

  8. Where relevant, stowing should be carried out in a sequence which will permit rapid checking and storage operations during and after unloading. Should the consignment include cargo subject to customs pre-entry procedures, customs examination would be made easier and unloading avoided if the cargo were stowed at the end of the container by the door.
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  9. Container Securing guidance

  10. Containers have very little strength in any direction other than vertically through the corner posts thus it is necessary to provide substantial support to the containers when they are on the ship. Stowage of containers is with their longer dimension fore and aft since the ship motion transmitted to cargo is greater in rolling than pitching and it is therefore prudent to limit any possible cargo movement within the container to the shorter transverse dimension.
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  11. Trim and stability booklet for cargo ships

  12. Contain either curves of form or hydrostatic tables and stability and trim characteristics for various conditions of loading .
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  13. Broken stowage? Cargo ships guideline

  14. The access shall be separate from the hatchway opening, and shall be by a stairway if possible. A fixed ladder, or a line of fixed rungs, shall have no point where they fill a reverse slope .
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  15. Ship type, design and facilities for cargo

  16. Cargo gear is designed for speed and flexibility for handling breakbulk, palletized, or container cargo. Various combinations of derricks, winches, and deck cranes are used for the handling of cargo. Cranes are fitted on many vessels to reduce manpower requirements. Some ships have special heavy-lift derricks that may serve one or more holds. Booms are rigged for either yard and stay (burton) or swinging-boom operation.
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  17. Cargo ships structural plans- how to use them

  18. Structural plans, sometimes called scantlings plans, show dimensions of the ships framing and plating. The midships section drawing, generally available for all ships
    More .....

Role of Classification Societies in maintaining cargo ships standard seagoing condition

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